Google Script Duplicate Sheet

developers. Google Apps Script: Find Duplicates in Sheets March 20, 2018 Leave a Comment Written by Kurt Kaiser. Next, choose Open with and then choose Google Sheets. You can use the Custom Format option to add spaces to cells in Google Sheets. Search the world's information, including webpages, images, videos and more. net is now responsive and will work in any device including smatphones and tablets: all you need is a modern browser. "Beginner's Guide to Google Apps Script 1&2 - Sheets & Forms". I look forward to your reply. I would like to use Google Apps Script to copy a single sheet from a Google spreadsheet into a different Google spreadsheet, and I want to retain formatting (including merged cells). Just what is this Ethereum thing? Will it really make our current monetary system obsolete? Are we all gonna be rich? The answer is, well, just maybe. Once you've shared a spreadsheet-either publicly or with specific people-you can create a custom link that'll let anyone with access quickly copy your spreadsheet into their own Google. Supercharge your Google Form with Google Apps Script! Ken Haggerty · 2 April 2015 I love Google Docs, and with just a little bit of JavaScript, you can supercharge any of your Google Docs using Google Apps Script. To use, copy code into the Script Editor and go to Publish > Deploy as web app… Download Google+ Profiles to Google Sheets. Google Photos is the home for all your photos and videos, automatically organized and easy to share. Then follow the step above. Some of the methods (like getCell(row, col) ) will be easier if you want to iterate through the cells. I am looking to create a button on a "summary" sheet that will, on the first click, unhide the quote page, and then on successive clicks, create a copy of the quote page and place it after the previous one. Today I was asked by a teacher how he could populate a drop-down list on his Google Form from data on a spreadsheet - and have it update as he changed the data. These pieces of software are and amazing help for your script breakdown but if you cannot afford the software you will need to do it the old fashioned way. I always say that anything that can be done with the mouse can be done more quickly with a keyboard. Insert and Copy a Row (Including Formulas) With Google Apps Script in Blog. On clicking the encrypt menu, the script checks the password with what you have set. This guide details how ImportHTML can be used with our Spreadsheets integration to display data on your dashboard. This wikiHow teaches you how to pull data from other sheets in a Google Sheets document as well as how to pull data from a separate Google spreadsheet. Reading from the spreadsheet. It's about how to merge two tables in Google Sheets using formulas. Let us see how. Create a spreadsheet From Google Drive, click the Create button and select Spreadsheet. The Unique function in Google Sheets makes it simple to create a list of only unique values from another list. Google apps scriptでスプレッドシートを複製するスクリプト. Download are some of the best Google add-ons. addEditor(emailAddress), Protection. For instance, Denise Manning's full shift is 7-4E, as shown in 'Daily Assignments'!J6. This tutorial assumes that you already have a basic knowledge of Conditional Formatting but would like to uncover the mysteries of the Custom Formula option. If you want to start playing with Python and Twilio, check out our Python quickstarts. First, let us add a menu item to your Google sheet so that it is easy for us to try the functions. Essentially it just puts all the data gathered from a form response into columns = 1row per form response. Getting File Names From a Google Drive Folder. To best get help, please share a copy of your Google spreadsheet with dummy but realistic data so that the fine members of this forum can take a look. There comes a time in every life, where you want to combine two data ranges within a Google Sheets query. Click the Add Trigger button at the bottom-left corner. Open the Google Sheet with the macro you want to copy and then click on Tools > Macros > Manage Macros. The former is typically the better option, as it will let you re-calculate and re-sort data inside Google Sheets and have those changes show up in your Google Docs document in a click. For this post we will look at a couple of patterns for inserting multiple rows of data into Google Sheets. Free Script Breakdown Sheet. Update the spreadsheet ID and worksheet names in the code below with the relevant values for your spreadsheet. Now I use this code to copy multiple sheets in a single click. Very often, Excel is used to manage lists of data, such as employee names or phone lists. For example, MailChimp, a mail-merging tool, has an add-on for Google Docs that communicates with MailChimp platform to send emails. A new tab will open for the GSuite Developer Hub. You can use the Paste Special option as well as the Transpose function. Next to GAS introduction, you'll learn what is google apps script variables and its scope, how to declare google apps script variables, how to assign value to google apps script variables, rules in defining google apps script variables and its scope. Open a new spreadsheet in Google Docs or use an existing spreadsheet containing duplicates. A new menu will appear called "Spreadsheet Cleanup. How to verify emails in Google Sheets December 9, 2016 - 4 minutes read Copy this code into the Google script editor. Today, I’m going to show you how to access data from a Google Doc spreadsheet in SSIS so you can dump it to a table or use it in your ETL processing. On line 17, you can change which campaigns you want to include. We take this function for granted now, but before Sheets, working on spreadsheets as a group was a huge pain. Add-ons are available. Then follow the step above. How to Indent on Google Sheets on PC or Mac. We collect information to provide better services to all our users — from figuring out basic stuff like which language you speak, to more complex things like which ads you’ll find most useful, the people who matter most to you online, or which YouTube videos you might like. We will show you how to password protect a spreadsheet in Google Drive. Copying and pasting cells. Learning to code can increase your productivity significantly. And as always, the script is your local copy and runs entirely in your Google account. The snippet below will return the indexes of the filtered rows in a given Sheet. And finally, if I copy my sheets, I also lose some formulas. Weiss, from The Ways to Wealth "Have you ever tried to copy and paste your Excel Spreadsheet into Google Sheets? It's impossible! I love Google Sheets because switching to Excel is as simple as clicking 'export. Writing your first Google Script. Let’s talk about how to combine data ranges from within the same spreadsheet (or from two different sheets), to run one query – working through examples using sample Twitter data. Switch between devices, and pick up wherever you left off. Of course, each of the examples above can be used to compare two columns from one or two tables or even match sheets themselves. The example spreadsheet had 3 columns: name, email and message text. Google Docs comes with a built-in option to create backup copies of your important files (for future reference) before sharing them with other users. The copied data will be get pasted but only text and numbers. google-sheets, script, timestamp I was wondering how to make a timestamp in Google Sheets and also to make the script that is: Easy to reuse Easy to set Easy to program for different purposes. LEN FUNCTION. I guess it was only a matter of time before I ended up dabbling with Google Scripts. google spreadsheet script to check the duplicate entries in the sheet Note: I have updated the script so that you can easily change the range, so now it can work to check duplicates in any column or any row or any range. Let's say you write a simple blog and don't want to build a backend to write, edit and store your posts - but you want to conveniently consume this data as JSON - then Google Drive helps you with that. For instance, if you have a big sheet but you only wish to email a specific range of cells, you can use the Range option to email the selected cells. "Managing our money via Google Sheets allows my wife and I to easily share the spreadsheet between one another. "Beginner's Guide to Google Apps Script 1&2 - Sheets & Forms. The most comprehensive image search on the web. For example, you could create a script bound to a specific Google Sheet that checks for and removes duplicate rows. There comes a time in every life, where you want to combine two data ranges within a Google Sheets query. Let’s define a test project we’re going to work with. Be sure you have shared your document either as “anyone with the link,” or “public. I found Google Apps Script (GAS) and some Google Sheets and Calendar API libraries. That will bring down the follow drop down menu: Clicking. If you want to apply the dependent dropdown list in multiple rows, you may read; "How to Create a Dependent Dropdown List in Google Sheets and apply to Multiple Rows". By David Nield. So, you can start to see the power of this. as Google Apps Script needs to get your permission to send. A few days back I was making some changes and adding data into a Google Sheet as part of my work with statistical data analysis. Embed a Google Map. Google Sheets – Conditional Formatting. How to print the Blank Sheet Music. There should be triggers for Google sheets as there are for Sharepoint. google-sheets, script, timestamp I was wondering how to make a timestamp in Google Sheets and also to make the script that is: Easy to reuse Easy to set Easy to program for different purposes. This script, uploaded by Carl Kranich to the Google Drive Template Directory, finds duplicate rows in the active sheet and colors them red but unlike other methods, here you have the option to find duplicates based on data of specific. Google Apps Script makes various global objects available that can be used to interact with G Suite products. If you are unfamiliar with Google scripts, head here for a very quick tutorial. 0 United States li. I saw the question come in over my phone and knowing it was very achievable directed the person to the Interacting With Your Docs List tutorial on the Google Developers site as a starting point. Embed a Google Map. You Can Code Google Sheets. We take this function for granted now, but before Sheets, working on spreadsheets as a group was a huge pain. If you work with lots of data in Google Docs, this will help you stay under the 2 million cell limit in Google Sheets by removing unused cells. Not finding an add-on for this (why recreate the wheel? :-) I explored creating a script. This tutorial may be a little lengthier as I have included different types of merging of tables. To make a copy of current spreadsheet file, proceed with the below given steps Step 1: File → Make a copy Step 2: It will ask you to enter the name of the file to be copied with. Next, choose Open with and then choose Google Sheets. The copied data will be get pasted but only text and numbers. The full source code of the examples can be found over on GitHub. There should be triggers for Google sheets as there are for Sharepoint. Business and education administration often involves an overwhelming amount of repetitive tasks. The user duplicates this sheet, renames the sheet with current date and uses this sheet to mark attendance for students. To best get help, please share a copy of your Google spreadsheet with dummy but realistic data so that the fine members of this forum can take a look. Google changed how Close Variants work and now exact match keywords may also show an ad when Google believes the meaning of the search is the same as the keyword. In truth, Excel has a built-in feature that makes quick work of this task, but as usual, there's more than one. Interactive JavaScript Charts Using Data from Google Sheets This article was peer reviewed by Jeff Smith. Google renames them, adding "Sheet_Name!" before the actual name. Our examples below use the open-source gspread library for interacting with Google Sheets. Essentially it just puts all the data gathered from a form response into columns = 1row per form response. Locating duplicate data is a basic need while working with spreadsheets. Add-ons are available. getActiveSpreadsheet(). duplicateActiveSheet() Keep scripting :). Google Sheets Resources All of my resources are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial 3. How to Remove Duplicates. Build web apps and automate tasks with Google Apps Script Apps Script is a rapid application development platform that makes it fast and easy to create business applications that integrate with G. On the google sheet, go to Tools > Script Editor This will take you to your google scripts console. So these would be different trackers (lists) that I want to combine. アクティブシートをそのまま複製。複製されたシートはアクティブシートの右側に「シート名+のコピー」と表示される。. To create your script, inside of Google Sheets, click on the Tools menu item, and click on Script editor. From Google Drive: Click (once) on the Form in Google Drive. csv files into a Google Sheet. Now copy and paste this code:. Google Apps Script to copy calculations from one area to another, based on the number of form entries. Google Sheets lets you remove duplicates from your document with three methods ranging from a simple integrated function to a custom script. G Suite Developers Blog Information for G Suite Developers Scheduling the Google Spreadsheet User Directory Script to Run If you'd like to give the Google Spreadsheet User Directory a try, then please copy this spreadsheet template, and modify and re-authorize it to run in your own domain. Google Photos is the home for all your photos and videos, automatically organized and easy to share. Turns out, Google App …. Google Maps is the most popular online mapping service with interactive zooming and panning, directions, location details, satellite views, and 360 degree street level panoramas. Delete Duplicates on Google Photos. Google Maps API This tutorial is about the Google Maps API ( A pplication P rogramming I nterface). 0 United States li. Then paste the function and run it. I would like to use Google Apps Script to copy a single sheet from a Google spreadsheet into a different Google spreadsheet, and I want to retain formatting (including merged cells). You’ll see a little clipboard icon appear in the lower-right hand corner of your data. We’ll start with the writing data example on the Google Apps Script site:. Using the Script: Copy the code below into a script file in for the Google Spreadsheet you want to use it on, save the script file and reload the spreadsheet. Firebase is built on Google infrastructure and scales automatically, for even the largest apps. Now I use this code to copy multiple sheets in a single click. Create a Google Apps Script. List Google Drive Folder File Names and URLs to a Google Sheet. Or maybe you’ve decided to make the full jump from Microsoft Excel to Google Sheets and need to migrate all of your files. Using the Script: Copy the code below into a script file in for the Google Spreadsheet you want to use it on, save the script file and reload the spreadsheet. Honestly, I was surprised that Google Sheets did not have a tool to locate duplicates built into it. The script duplicates the master sheet and renames the new sheet. So I've been exposing the team to crazy techniques like dynamically pulling a data set from one spreadsheet in Google Sheets into another using the IMPORTRANGE function in Google Sheets. Insert and Copy a Row (Including Formulas) With Google Apps Script in Blog. Because recorded macros are stored as functions in Google Apps Script, to import a macro, you need to copy the function and then paste it in the new sheet's macro file. Lifetime access to the course. Learning to code can increase your productivity significantly. One of the most useful aspects of the Unique function is that you type the formula into one cell, and it will fill in the cells beneath it with all the unique values in the range you specified. It is based on JavaScript, but you need to know very little to be able to do Google Apps Script. Sign in - Google Accounts. Google Apps Script: Find Duplicates in Sheets. 0 United States li. Every time a form is submitted to the spreadsheet, our script will make a copy of this template and replace parts of the text with the data submitted to the form. When you record macros in Google Sheets, your actions are converted into a Google Apps Script. Next select "Tools->Script Editor". People commonly ask how to migrate Excel files to Google Sheets. What was the result? Switch back to your spreadsheet. Every time a form is submitted to the spreadsheet, our script will make a copy of this template and replace parts of the text with the data submitted to the form. Copy all the content of apps script and paste in the. You can also use this function to automatically pull data into a Google Sheet. Go to https://sheets. Assuming that the Script editor window is still open, select Edit > Current project's triggers. However, that dastardly column width … Continue reading "Google Apps Script. All it needs is the link of the page you need. Google Apps Script to copy calculations from one area to another, based on the number of form entries. Copy and paste the script into a new script file and save: File > Save; Refresh the Google Spreadsheet window. When the data changes…. Insert Multiple Rows on Google. (No need to re-record from scratch. Make a Copy of Spreadsheet in Google Docs. To make a copy of current spreadsheet file, proceed with the below given steps Step 1: File → Make a copy Step 2: It will ask you to enter the name of the file to be copied with. This function is very useful whenever we are importing CSV files into google docs and cleaning the leading and trailing spaces in the string. Yes, you could go into the formula bar and manually and copy and paste the information, but an easy trick is to use a Google Apps script to do it. Make a Header on Google Sheets on PC or Mac. Google Spreadsheet is a powerful and free tool to manage complex spreadsheets. For spreadsheets created in the newer version of Google Sheets, use getProtections(type), which returns the more powerful Protection class. Getting File Names From a Google Drive Folder. “Managing our money via Google Sheets allows my wife and I to easily share the spreadsheet between one another. Some of the methods (like getCell(row, col) ) will be easier if you want to iterate through the cells. Copy the code below and. I guess it was only a matter of time before I ended up dabbling with Google Scripts. I would like to use Google Apps Script to copy a single sheet from a Google spreadsheet into a different Google spreadsheet, and I want to retain formatting (including merged cells). Or maybe you’ve decided to make the full jump from Microsoft Excel to Google Sheets and need to migrate all of your files. verify emails in Google sheets with script. This three-minute video explains how to export a PDF using Google Sheets, the spreadsheet program in Google Drive. There is no need to copy down the formula or anything else. It will compare two Google sheets and columns for duplicates or uniques in 3 steps. Google Maps API This tutorial is about the Google Maps API ( A pplication P rogramming I nterface). Google Script Color Ramp. Google Sheets lets you remove duplicates from your document with three methods ranging from a simple integrated function to a custom script. How to Pull Data from Another Sheet on Google Sheets on PC or Mac. In such times you want an easy way to get rid of duplicate data. Issue with Google Script when making a copy of spreadsheet. Copying and pasting cells. Not rocket science but it might be handy for someone and it was a really. Now I use this code to copy multiple sheets in a single click. How To Remove Duplicate Rows in Google. Of course, each of the examples above can be used to compare two columns from one or two tables or even match sheets themselves. Essentially it just puts all the data gathered from a form. My name is Juan and from South Africa. Is it possible to speed up this script though? I have about 50 rows of data and the script clears the duplicates quickly, but just stays running for a while. As I started to work with some of the libraries, I realized that it was going to take a decent amount of effort just to get authentication working properly, and then I'd have to run it somewhere. Hello World in Google Apps Script. Check out the full tutorial below that has some of the best tips and tricks for Google Sheets shortcuts:. Here's an example. Google Apps Script is a cloud-based JavaScript platform which allows developers to write scripts only owner can manipulate API services such as Calendar, Docs, Drive, Gmail, and Sheets and easily create Add-Ons for these services with chromium based applications. We'll start with the writing data example on the Google Apps Script site:. Google Sheets can soon remove duplicates and trim white space, receives new keyboard shortcuts Google has announced new features for Sheets, which is now capable of removing duplicate data and. View the Google Spreadsheet Demo. The menu follows a common and obvious pattern; it is built by the onOpen function. You can use the Paste Special option as well as the Transpose function. I recently stumbled across Google Apps Scripts, a platform that allows users to extend Google's G Suite of online products through a scripting language derived from JavaScript. You can choose any spreadsheet you own or have editing access to:. I saw the question come in over my phone and knowing it was very achievable directed the person to the Interacting With Your Docs List tutorial on the Google Developers site as a starting point. The link to the script is here: https://script. So these would be different trackers (lists) that I want to combine. Needing to manually copy and paste is the common fear for. Learn more about how Google is supporting schools facing closures due to COVID-19, including offering advanced Hangouts Meet capabilities for free to all G Suite customers until July 1st, 2020. Learn More. November 26, 2018. There is a well-known VBA script that's been around for years that will break the password and unprotect any worksheet. It's easy to remove them in Google Spreadsheet by making a simple script, says MakeUseOf. I copied the code somewhere from the internet. Open a new script file, and add a new script :. However, that dastardly column width … Continue reading "Google Apps Script. The script will run so that each Friday (if spreadsheet is opened) a duplicate tab will be created using the conditions set forth below. "Beginner's Guide to Google Apps Script 1&2 - Sheets & Forms. Creating a copy of a sheet by copying values only? 2. You can make a copy above Google Sheet from this link. You can also copy and paste the code directly in your own script, see the source code. The copied data will be get pasted but only text and numbers. To do that, go to the Google Sheets Home. Download are some of the best Google add-ons. Create a Google Apps Script. I want to write a google apps script that will duplicate a pre-formatted template sheet and re-name it with the employee name. removeEditors(emailAddresses), Protection. Assuming that the Script editor window is still open, select Edit > Current project's triggers. Copy and paste that code into a Google Keep note and then in any spreadsheet use the Tools menu to access the Script editor. My name is Juan and from South Africa. A new tab will open for the GSuite Developer Hub. removeEditor(emailAddress), Protection. The default worksheet naming convention in Google Sheets will label each worksheet with names like Sheet1, Sheet2, Sheets3, etc, which is typically not very helpful in identifying the information contained in that sheet. The former is typically the better option, as it will let you re-calculate and re-sort data inside Google Sheets and have those changes show up in your Google Docs document in a click. (No need to re-record from scratch. Create a brand new, blank spreadsheet (not just a new sheet). Here is the code I have so far, I am using some functions from the Google scripts tutorial, but I am at a loss on how to proceed further. When the data changes…. Using the Google API to script your spreadsheets (or any other document) is a really common operation but can be difficult for non programmers. Method 6: How to remove duplicates in Google Sheets using an Add-on. The script can only fully run if the latest tab is 7 days or older. Consequently I'm faced with the l. The script has only one public function, copyFormulasDown(Sheet sheet, int sourceRow), as documented below. I know it sounds complicated, but we’ll provide you the script and the rest of steps are pretty straightforward. › Use a Macro to Copy Data in an Email to Excel Last reviewed on August 29, 2018 230 Comments A security update disabled the Run a script option in Outlook 2013 and 2016's rules wizard. Find duplicate or unique rows This feature is designed to identify duplicate or unique rows within a Google Sheet and manage them further (highlight, remove, move to another tab and even more). It was surprising yet frustrating to me that Google had not implemented the feature to provide subscripts and superscripts for the Google Sheets since so many of us deal with data that come in the form of mathematical fractions/multiples and chemical formulas. Manually copying files is the intended ways and the most reliable. Copy and paste the following script:. Get selected cell value in your Google Sheet Script. Google Docs comes with a built-in option to create backup copies of your important files (for future reference) before sharing them with other users. Note: Google Spreadsheets claims to impose a maximum limit. ; Rename it Submit Form to Google Sheets. Google is where people search for what to do, where to go, and what to buy. So, the googling began again. I like to have all students in one spreadsheet, their name on a tab along the bottom. I have to terminate the trigger/execution in order for me to edit the sheet. Here’s how it works! STEP 1. You can use the Paste Special option as well as the Transpose function. Published in: Google Apps Script - Google Sheets. "Beginner's Guide to Google Apps Script 1&2 - Sheets & Forms". In such times you want an easy way to get rid of duplicate data. Find duplicate or unique rows This feature is designed to identify duplicate or unique rows within a Google Sheet and manage them further (highlight, remove, move to another tab and even more). If you want to apply the dependent dropdown list in multiple rows, you may read; “How to Create a Dependent Dropdown List in Google Sheets and apply to Multiple Rows“. after few mins you will see the copy of the Active Sheet in the selected spreadsheets and having name as "ActiveSheetName" instead of "Copy of ActiveSheetName". Convert Excel To Google Sheets While Uploading. Make searching your site easy. How to duplicate a sheet in Google Docs Spreadsheet? Explanation. First, let us add a menu item to your Google sheet so that it is easy for us to try the functions. Method 6: How to remove duplicates in Google Sheets using an Add-on. How to make a copy of spreadsheet in Google Docs? Explanation. Switch between devices, and pick up wherever you left off. For this post we will look at a couple of patterns for inserting multiple rows of data into Google Sheets. Select the cell in which you'd like to remove the duplicated info. Click Continue. How to Quickly Convert Excel Spreadsheets to Google Sheets by Andrew Childress 10 Feb Sheets will automatically create a copy of the file and convert it to the more native Sheets format: Once you've converted the workbook to the Sheets format, you can start editing, changing, and working with the workbook. Let us see how. Open a new spreadsheet in Google Docs or use an existing spreadsheet containing duplicates. There are many ways to find Duplicate Records in Google Sheets. The Importxml guide for Google Docs has been written to primarily empower SEOs, SEMs and digital professionals across the world to create their own tools. CLick it and you have 2 options: from address to lon,lat and other way round. Google Sheets for PC Windows is an application using which you can edit and manipulate any spreadsheet document without needing any other software or even an internet connection. developers. In the code sample here, we're only exposing rows hidden by filter. Method 2: Removing Duplicate rows from Google Sheets with a script. In this codelab, you'll learn how you can use Google Sheets as a custom reporting tool for your users. We take this function for granted now, but before Sheets, working on spreadsheets as a group was a huge pain. Finally, the script will get compiled and the e-mails will be sent to all the email addresses at the same time. Instead of moving your data, you can make a copy of it. My name is Juan and from South Africa. Google apps script if statement Google apps script If statement check/validate the condition(s) present inside the parenthesis (). This wikiHow teaches you how to copy and paste formulas in Google Sheets for PC and Mac. Instead of wasting time with tedious copying and pasting, there’s a quick, easy way to separate text into columns in Google Sheets. How to write google sheet script so only latest timestamped forms record if duplicate is the only record?. Google Sheets: Spreadsheet basics Once you know the basics on how to access, create, and edit Google Docs, read here to learn the basics that apply specifically to Google Sheets. It is good enough for 20K rows, and. The scripting tool lets you perform tasks and automate your work in Google Sheets. Execute test_copyColumnNumbers. Google Apps Script is a cloud-based JavaScript platform which allows developers to write scripts only owner can manipulate API services such as Calendar, Docs, Drive, Gmail, and Sheets and easily create Add-Ons for these services with chromium based applications. You can record a set of activities on any cells using the macro. I always say that anything that can be done with the mouse can be done more quickly with a keyboard. Google Sheets can soon remove duplicates and trim white space, receives new keyboard shortcuts Google has announced new features for Sheets, which is now capable of removing duplicate data and. Script to check if the last tab/sheet is 7 days or older to create a new one using Friday as the date to pull from (described more below). Learn More. For example, you could create a script bound to a specific Google Sheet that checks for and removes duplicate rows. It has a smooth moving, easy to use interface that is regularly updated with new features. Google Maps API This tutorial is about the Google Maps API ( A pplication P rogramming I nterface). VB Script for Copy Sheet Showing 1-15 of 15 messages. Our guide below will help you to find that revision history so that you can restore an older version of the file. Google Images. On clicking the encrypt menu, the script checks the password with what you have set. Of course, each of the examples above can be used to compare two columns from one or two tables or even match sheets themselves. To eliminate the multiple spreadsheet issue, you could write the script so that would delete the old sheet, copy the new sheet, and then rename the new sheet. So these would be different trackers (lists) that I want to combine.